The origins of Urdu
The origins of the Urdu language is a subject on which not best linguists and political historians move swords, but even ideologues and Gramsci’s nation-intellectuals, representing a supposedly ‘Pakistani’ and an ‘Indian’ point of view, clash often. Considered in the light of this love poetry in urdu tremendously contentious and charged educational and intellectual surroundings, the ebook of Distinguished National Professor at Quaid-e-Azam University, Dr Tariq Rehman’s foremost paintings, From Hindi to Urdu: A Social and Political History, Karachi: Oxford University Press, 2011 (for the India market, Orient BlackSwan, New Delhi) is a totally great addition. It is a shining instance of dispassionate and enlightened scholarship that must go a protracted manner in putting the report directly.
The puzzle the author seeks to clear up is the following: from the 13th to the 18th century the call used for the language now known as Urdu changed into basically Hindi, though other names had been extensively utilized. When and why did it end up Urdu? He offers explanations: pristine Hindi turned into now not the same language as present day Hindi; languages change over the years. The same pristine Hindi, but, turned into the ancestor of two modern languages: present day Urdu and modern-day Hindi. In this evolution, argues the writer, natural change in addition to human employer played their component.
With regard to herbal alternate, he asserts that the language spoken in plenty of northern India at the time of Muslim incursions into the subcontinent was defined as Hindi or Hindui by means of outsiders, particularly Muslim scholars. The extremely good poet and sufi, Amir Khusrau (1253-1324, Turkish father, Indian mother) spoke and wrote in a language he called Hindui. It turned into the equal language that many centuries later inside the colonial era got here to be referred to as Hindustani. That name was usually in use before the partition of India to describe the day-to-day language spoken in northern India and in lots of different elements of the subcontinent.
He rejects the broadly held view that Urdu (a Turkish word for a camp or gathering of soldiers) emerged as a new language whilst guys belonging to disparate linguistic nationalities were recruited into Muslim armies and wished a language to communicate. If that had been genuine, Urdu could be a pidgin language, he argues. A pidgin is a discounted language that comes into being from extended contact between corporations of human beings with out a not unusual language. Nor is Urdu a creole language. A creole language is an extension of an present language, which has a center group of native audio system, but becomes appreciably simplified as other corporations adopt it. He rejects both such descriptions for Urdu, arguing that Urdu has a fairly sophisticated shape with distinct grammar and syntax, and that it descends from the Hindu-Muslim cultural synthesis extending over 500 years. During this era, it turned into utilized in both the non secular and secular literature of Hindus and Muslims. There were of direction the Devanagari and Persian scripts in which this common language become written.
With regard to the name Urdu, Rehman gives an opportunity explanation. Drawing on a substantial frame of sources he asserts that some of different names — Hindvi, Hindi, Dihalvi, Khari Boli, Gujri, Dakhani and Rekhta have been used for this common language. However, the Muslim elite of Delhi and Agra commenced to use a selected vocabulary closer to the end of the 18th century, which became its one of a kind aristocratic capabilities. It become called ‘Zuban-e-Urdu-e-Mualla’ (the language of the Exalted City, i.E. Delhi). Over time that lengthy name shrank genuinely to Urdu.
Rehman reviews a number of competing theories approximately the starting place of Urdu. Among them the most important is the view that Urdu is a evolved form of Punjabi. Hafiz Mahmud Shirani become the originator of that theory (provided in 1928). He advised that Urdu first developed in Punjab and changed into then taken to Delhi by using the Muslims. Proof given in assist of the concept is the lifestyles of Punjabi phrases and expressions in Urdu which includes Dhakni, spoken in southern India. Shirani made one of these conclusion with out analyzing the hypothesis that Urdu, Hindi, Punjabi, Seraiki, Hindko and so on descend from a commonplace historic language “spread over the large location from Peshawar to Benares”. Urdu has a ability to soak up phrases from other languages, so it must no longer be surprising to discover Punjabi words in it — this is all the extra possible due to the fact both stem from the same ancient root.
How did, then, Urdu become known as the language of Muslims and of Islam? This is the core element or the most interesting thing of the puzzle the writer seeks to resolve.
He lines the roots of such transformation to the vicissitudes attendant upon the politics and social order that evolved with the rise of British strength in the subcontinent. The decline of Muslim electricity produced an identification disaster. It become compounded through the demand of the growing Hindu middle magnificence that Hindi written in the Devanagari script ought to replace the Persian script. Hitherto government documents have been written in the Persian script and the Muslim minority as well as the Kaesth caste of Hindu scribes who wrote in it loved a monopoly of presidency jobs inside the United Provinces (UP). Under the British a switchover to Hindi-Urdu or Hindustani came about. The script used become the Persian. The growing Hindu middle magnificence of UP demanded that it have to be written in the Devanagari script and they referred to as it Hindi. Further complications followed while spiritual revivals among Hindus and Muslims commenced to be expressed in extraordinary scripts. Such divisive inclinations have been annoyed further when the Congress-Muslim League contest over India’s future set the terms for intellectual and political debate.
The ‘Islamisation of Urdu’ have become part of the separatist agenda of the Muslim League, and after Pakistan came into being such an time table found spokespersons amongst Punjabi-origin students which includes Fateh Mohammad Malik who recommended that Punjabi changed into merely a primitive kind of Urdu, and consequently Urdu must be the country wide language of Pakistan and Punjab. In India, Hindi purists and Hindu nationalists resorted to comparable arguments which will denying Urdu the reputation of an indigenous language of India.
Notwithstanding such politicisation of the origins of Urdu, the author draws interest to the truth that Hindustani (commonplace call for each Hindi and Urdu) remains the language of the human beings on each aspects of the border, and this is especially noteworthy in Bollywood in which Hindi used inside the movies is truly Hindustani. There isn’t any doubt that he offers most compelling proof in his ebook to establish his thesis. It is sure to grow to be a widespread reference on this issue.